Mechanisms of action of cytoplasmic microRNAs. Part 1. Mechanisms of interaction of microRNA and mRNA molecules. Influence of microRNAs on translation

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.17.2.2022.1504

Keywords:

microRNA, miRNA, miR, mRNA translation, Argonaute proteins, review

Abstract

The scientific review presents the mechanisms of action of cytoplasmic miRNAs, namely the relationship between miRNA and mRNA molecules and the influence of miRNAs on translation. To write the article, information was searched using Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka databases. The authors state that the interaction of microRNA and mRNA requires the presence in the region of the 3'-end of the mRNA molecule of small nucleotide sequences — miRNA regulatory elements, which are complementary to the sequences of the “seed” region of microRNA. It is known that only six nucleotide matches in the “seed” region (position 2–8) are required to initiate the interaction of microRNA with the mRNA target. It is emphasized that the interaction of miRNA with mRNA depends on the availability of the mRNA binding site. The authors suggest that accessory proteins are involved in the interaction of microRNA and mRNA. It is known that the process of mRNA and miRNA hybridization depends on the presence of SNP. Scientists believe that the main function of cytoplasmic miRNAs is to regulate the activity of protein synthesis. It is presented that microRNAs can repress and activate the mRNA translation process. In addition, some miRNAs are able to both inhibit and enhance the translation of mRNA depending on specific local conditions and the spectrum of microenvironmental factors. Thus, the mechanism of action of cytoplasmic miRNAs is realized due to the interaction of miRNAs and mRNAs, which is due to the presence of complementary nucleotide sequences of special regions. The interaction of miRNAs with mRNAs depends on the availability of the mRNA binding site, the involvement of accessory proteins, and the presence of SNP. Violations of microRNA-mRNA interactions lead to the development of pathological processes. Cytoplasmic miRNAs perform their main function, namely the regulation of protein synthesis activity, due to miRNA-mediated repression and activation of mRNA translation.

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Published

2022-06-23

How to Cite

Abaturov, A., & Babуch V. (2022). Mechanisms of action of cytoplasmic microRNAs. Part 1. Mechanisms of interaction of microRNA and mRNA molecules. Influence of microRNAs on translation. CHILD`S HEALTH, 17(2), 114–119. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.17.2.2022.1504

Issue

Section

Theoretical Medicine

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