Health effects of secondhand smoke on children under 5 years of life

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.17.2.2022.1498

Keywords:

secondhand tobacco smoke, respiratory symptoms, children, exposure

Abstract

Background. The high prevalence of smoking among adults suggests the almost inevitable effects of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) on children and adults who do not smoke. The negative effects of SHS are most pronounced in young children, especially in families where the mother is a smoker. The aim was to assess the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to SHS in children under five years of life. Materials and me­thods. The survey among 520 families with children was conducted ­using online self-reported questionnaire. Families with extremely and very preterm children and children with inherited diseases of bronchopulmonary system were excluded from the analysis. During the analysis, all children (n = 414; 55.07 % of boys and 44.93 % of girls, mean age — 36.38 ± 7.19 months) were divided according to SHS exposure. 186 children exposed to SHS were included in the main group, and 228 children without SHS exposure — in the control group. Results. 22.46 % of children were prenatally exposed to SHS. Maternal smoking ­during pregnancy significantly increased the risk of the intraute­rine growth retardation (IUGR) (OR 2.43 [95% CI 1.07–5.52]). Postnatal exposure to SHS was present in 56.52 % of children. These children were significantly more likely to be formula-fed (OR 1.75 [95% CI 1.15–2.65]). The frequency of formula fee­ding was significantly increased by mothers’ use of both traditional tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (OR 2.10 and 2.99, respectively). Exclusively maternal smoking in the family increased the risk of frequent acute respiratory viral infections (ARI) in 3 years old children more than 1.5 times (OR 1.60 [95% CI 1.01–2.60]). Household SHS exposure increased the probability of bronchial obstruction (BO) during ARI in a child in 1.61 times, while exclusively maternal smoking increased the risk in 2.88 times. An increased risk of frequent ARI (OR 3.25 [95% CI 1.68–6.28]) was also present in the subgroup of children whose mothers smoked electronic nicotine delivery devices. The use of traditional tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems, both by mothers and other family members, has significantly affected the risk of developing BO in children with respiratory disease. Conclusions. Maternal smoking during pregnancy in the studied cohort is a proven risk factor for IUGR. Household smoking is statistically likely to affect the incidence and likelihood of developing BO in children of the first five years of life, regardless of the type of tobacco product. This risk is greatest among children whose mothers are smokers.

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Published

2022-06-23

How to Cite

Kovalenko, D. (2022). Health effects of secondhand smoke on children under 5 years of life. CHILD`S HEALTH, 17(2), 78–84. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.17.2.2022.1498

Issue

Section

Clinical Pediatrics