CHILD`S HEALTH http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/ <table id="table1" style="border-collapse: collapse;" border="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"><span style="color: #3366ff; font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: bold; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18px; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; display: inline !important; float: none;">The journal Child`s health (Zdorov`e rebenka) is the professional scientific-practical specialized peer-reviewed journal for pediatricians, family physicians, other physicians, covering a wide range of issues of modern Pediatrics.</span></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"><hr noshade="noshade" size="1" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="top"><a> <img src="http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/public/journals/345/homeHeaderTitleImage_uk_UA.jpg" alt="Заголовок домашньої сторінки" width="250" height="375" hspace="10" /></a></td> <td align="left" valign="top"><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: small;"> <strong>The founder:</strong> Dnipro State Medical University, Donetsk National Medical University, Zaslavsky O.Yu.<br /><strong>Publisher:</strong> Zaslavsky O.Yu.<br /><strong>Language of edition: </strong>Ukrainian, English, Russian.</span> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><strong>Registration Certificate: </strong>КВ № 21341-11141ПР. Issued by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine 09.06.2015.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;">The journal is included in the new List of scientific publications of the Higher attestation Commission, which can publish results of dissertations on competition of scientific degrees of doctor and candidate of Sciences. Order of the MES from 28.12.2019 № 1643.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><strong>ISSN</strong> 2224-0551 (print)<br /><strong>ISSN</strong> 2307-1168 (online)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><strong>DOI: 10.22141/2224-0551</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><strong>Founded:</strong> July 2006<br /><strong>Publication frequency:</strong> 8 times per year.</span></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.mif-ua.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <span style="text-decoration: none; font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;">http://www.mif-ua.com/</span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><br /></span> <span style="text-decoration: none; font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"> <a href="http://www.dsma.dp.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <span style="text-decoration: none;">http://www.dsma.dp.ua/</span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><br /></span> <span style="text-decoration: none; font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"> <a href="http://www.dsmu.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <span style="text-decoration: none;">http://www.dsmu.edu.ua/</span></a></span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"><hr /></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Natural Person-entreprenuer Zaslavsky O.Yu. en-US CHILD`S HEALTH 2224-0551 <p>Our edition uses the copyright terms of <strong>Creative Commons</strong> for open access journals.</p><p>Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:</p><ol><li>The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</strong></a>, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.</li><li>Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.</li><li>The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.</li><li>The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.</li><li>The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.</li><li>The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.</li><li>The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal. </li></ol> Features of phagocytosis function in children of preschool age depending on the incidence of acute respiratory diseases http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239710 <p>Background. Recently, with the emergence of new pathogenic viruses’ variants, attention is drawn to the functioning status of innate immunity components, which are able to neutralize unknown microorganisms at the early stages of infection. Therefore, the study of phagocytosis disorders in children with respiratory recurrent infectious diseases will supply the scientific data on the processes of age-dependent formation of antimicrobial protection. The purpose: to improve the diagnosis of innate immune disorders in preschool children with respiratory recurrent infectious on the background of new data on phagocytosis parameters. Materials and methods. Sixty children aged from 2 to 5 years were observed. Two groups were formed: 1) children with respiratory tract acute infectious more than 6 times per year (n = 30); 2) children with respiratory acute infectious 6 or fewer times per year (n = 30). Results. The children of group 1 presented with statistically significantly increased cases of low phagocytic counts (by 60.0 %, p &lt; 0.05), phagocytic index (by 56.0 %, p &lt; 0.05), index of phagocytosis completeness (70.0 %, p &lt; 0.05), neutrophil phagocytic activity stimulated by Staphylococcus (50.0 %, p &lt; 0.05) and high rates of spontaneous neutrophil phagocytic activity (43.3 %, p &lt; 0.05), increased serum level of interleukin-1β (46.7 %, p &lt; 0 05), interleukin-6 (43.3 %, p &lt; 0.05), interleukin-10 (by 30.0 %, p &lt; 0.05), TNF (by 46.7 %, p &lt; 0.05). Conclusions. In children aged 2–5 years with respiratory acute infectious diseases more than 6 times per year, phagocytic dysfunction was established. It is manifested itself in a decrease of phagocytosis absorption and stimulated metabolic activity on the background of increased pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines serum level, ie cytokine imbalance.</p> L.S. Ovcharenko O.V. Tymoshyna A.O. Vertehel T.G. Andrienko I.V. Samokhin O.V. Kryazhev Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 325 330 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239710 Features of physical and sexual development in school-aged children with psychosomatic disorders http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239711 <p><strong>Background.</strong> Monitoring of physical and sexual development indicators using standards appropriate to age and sex, especially in children with chronic diseases is the most important element of management of children and adolescents with various pathologies because it allows managing the treatment process and improving it timely. Unfortunately, these issues have not been stu­died enough today. The purpose of the work is to determine the influence of somatic and mental diseases on the physical and sexual development impairments in school-age children. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> Nine hundred and thirty-five patients aged 10–17 years (boys — 441, girls — 494) with the following pathology were exa­mined: diabetes mellitus type 1, diffuse nontoxic goiter (DNG) with various menstrual disorders (girls with abnormal uterine bleeding), and girls with hypomenorrhea syndrome (HMS), mental disorders (functional and organic), systemic connective tissue dysplasia, secondary cardiomyopathy, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The comparison group enrolled healthy children of the same age. <strong>Results.</strong> The presence of type 1 diabetes mellitus, diffuse nontoxic goiter were proved to ne­gatively affect the somatosexual development of school-age children and contribute to the formation of disharmonious physical development (in 32.4 % of patients with diabetes mellitus 1 and 56.6 % of adolescents with DNG) and sexual maturation. It was established that 52.4 % of girls with gynecological pathology presen­ted with harmonious physical development. Against the background of disharmony of physical development, girls are more likely to develop menstrual irregularities such as HMS. Harmonious physical development is registered in 50.8 % of patients with JIA. 67.25 % of people with JIA have normal growth rates. Exceedance of normal and lower values are observed in girls (p &lt; 0.05). At the stages of puberty, the most common deviations in growth and body weight were observed in early puberty (100 %), the least often — in late puberty (42.8 %). In 56.8 % of patients with SLE, harmonious physical development was registered. The most common were as follows: overweight (33.3 %), decreased growth rate (17.6 %), and weight deficit (11.7 %). Based on the frequency of SLE, it was determined that the most vulnerable were puberty (91.0 %) and prepuberty (87.5 %). The onset of SLE in late puberty occurred in 26.3 % of cases. In patients with secondary cardiomyopathies and systemic connective tissue dysplasia, no significant statistical differences in age-related parameters were found. Most patients with mental disorders had a harmonious physical development (93.6 %). Among the violations of the latter, the deficit of body weight was most often determined (19.5 %).</p> I.S. Lebets S.I. Turchina T.M. Matkovska S.V. Novokhatska V.V. Nikonova T.O. Kostenko O.V. Shushlyapina Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 331 337 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239711 Characteristics of the diet of school-age children and the incidence of gastrointestinal pathology http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239712 <p><strong>Background.</strong> It is known that malnutrition significantly affects human life expectancy and leads to the emergence and development of non-communicable diseases. A balanced diet is a leading factor in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose was to investigate the state of actual nutrition, indicators of nutritional status and gastrointestinal morbidity in school-age children.<strong> Materials and methods.</strong> The study was conducted on the basis of secondary schools in Chernivtsi and MNPE “Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital”. A questionnaire method was used with the compilation of individual menus and subsequent analysis of the chemical composition of diets in 162 students. Depending on the state of health, children were divided into groups: I (n = 90) — those with chronic gastrointestinal diseases, II (n = 44) — with functional gastrointestinal disorders, III (n = 28) — individuals without gastrointestinal pathology. <strong>Results.</strong> Chronic gastrointestinal pathology was diagnosed in 55.5 % of the exa­mined children, functional gastrointestinal diseases — in 27.2 %. The most common chronic pathology is chronic gastroduodenitis. The majority of the surveyed children did not follow the diet, namely 56.5 % of children violated the frequency of intake, 69.2 % did not adhere to the intervals between meals. Most of patients (59.2 %) eat 3–5 times a day, 29.1 % of them eat 3–4 times a day, 30.1 % eat 4–5 times, and 11.7 % less than three times a day. One third of children do not have breakfast at home, and 19.5 % do not have a second breakfast at school. The caloric value of daily diets is lower than the normative indicators, it averages 2,337.64 ± 65.16 kcal and is insufficiently provided by the main components: proteins by 12 %, fats by 25 % and carbohydrates by 63 %. Macro- and micronutrient deficiency is also registered in 53.1 % of children, especially of calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, and iodine. Children of groups II and III are less likely to eat fast food compared to those of group I (34.1 and 32.1 vs. 53.3 %, p &lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The diet and nutrition of school-age children with gastrointestinal pathology does not meet hygienic requirements and not only does not provide primary prevention of non-communicable diseases, but, on the contrary, is a risk factor for the latter.</p> T.V. Sorokman P.M. Moldovan O.V. Makarova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 338 343 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239712 Risks for obesity development, features of food behavior and bio-impedansemetric parameters in adolescents http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239713 <p><strong>Background.</strong> The problem of obesity in adolescents has gained its medical and social relevance since the incidence of the disease is steadily increasing. The purpose of the study is to improve the effectiveness of early diagnosis and prevention of obesity in adolescents. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> To study the risk factors for obesity, a comparative assessment of lifestyle among adolescents aged 15–17 years with obesity, overweight and physiological body weight was conducted. In adolescents of the same age with comorbid obesity (basic group), overweight and physiological body weight (two comparison groups), the types of food behavior were determined using the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ). Bioelectrical indicators of bio-impedancemetric analysis were studied on a Tanita apparatus (Japan). The probability of differences in mean values was determined using Student’s t-test. <strong>Results.</strong> It was found that the frequency of imbalance of the food pyramid, movement disorders, sleep and rest, nervous tension, burdened heredity increased significantly among obese adolescents. Obesity was found to dominate by external type of eating behavior (57.2 %); at the excess weight — restrictive type (60 %); at physiological body weight — emotional type (40 %). Bio-impedancemetry showed that the reliable bioelectrical parameters of obesity were total fat (35.5 ± 4.5 % and 29 ± 2 % vs. 17.5 ± 2.5 %); visceral fat (17 ± 2 % and 12 ± 3 % vs. 8.5 ± 1.5 %); and metabolic age (33 ± 8 and 21.5 ± 1.5 years versus 16 ± 1 years). <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Risk factors for obesity include the imbalance of the food pyramid, movement disorders, sleep and rest, nervous tension, bad habits, burdened here­dity. The predominance of external type of eating behavior in obesity, restrictive — in overweight and emotional type in adolescents with physiological body weight should be taken into account when prescribing personalized lifestyle adjustments. The most informative bioelectrical parameters of bio-impedancemetry were total fat, visceral fat, and metabolic age. Bio-impedancemetry as a non-invasive predictive method of diagnosing obesity can be re­commended for widespread implementation in pediatric practice.</p> Z.R. Kocherha I.S. Nedostup B.M. Pavlykivska N.M. Tereshkun I.V. Kazimyrchuk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 344 350 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239713 COVID-19 in children http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239714 <p><strong>Background.</strong> In 2020, a new human coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic, causing the disease course from mild symptoms to severe cases. In this article we analyze the features of the course of coronavirus disease among children from 3 to 18 years. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> Medical records of 69 pediatric inpatients aged 3 to 18 years were analysed. They were hospitalized in the Lviv Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital “OHMATDYT” from April to December 2020 with a diagnosis of coronavirus disease. Laboratory tests for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were performed in samples of nasopharyngeal swabs by polymerase chain reaction at the Lviv Regional Laboratory Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The results were processed statistically using Excel software from Microsoft Office 2019 packages. <strong>Results.</strong> It was found that 88.4 % of children came into contact with infected family members. The presence of comorbidities was observed in 17.3 % of patients. The main manifestations of coronavirus disease in children were: fever &gt; 38 °C — 52.2 %, &lt; 38 °C — 39.1 %, sore throat — 14.5 %, runny nose — 13 %, loss of smell and taste — 8.7 %, cough — 24.6 %, abdominal pain and diarrhea — 10.1 %, general weakness — 52.2 %. Laboratory examination showed leukocytosis in 5.9 % of children, leukopenia in 53.6 %. Pneumonia was observed in 36.2 % of cases. Two patients had complications in the form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which had a severe, life-threatening course. In the period from 14 to 48 days after COVID-19, this syndrome was diagnosed in 10 children. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Children, regardless of age, are susceptible to coronavirus and have not been the primary source of SARS-CoV-2 in the family. The clinical course of the disease was manifested in most cases by fever and general weakness. Pneumonia was observed in 36.2 % of patients, severe complications in the form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was detected in 2 children on the background of the acute course of the disease and in 10 children this syndrome occurred within 48 days after COVID-19.</p> N.S. Kosmynina I.Yu. Avramenko O.L. Luchkovska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 351 354 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239714 Postoperative agitation syndrome in young children with perinatal damage to the central nervous system http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239715 <p>One of the complications of the postoperative period in children is postanesthetic agitation, a significant emotional and uncontrollable worry, clouding of consciousness, feeling of anxiety and fear, inappropriate behavior, irritability, inconso­lable crying, aggressive and negative attitude towards parents and medical staff. Postoperative agitation is very important for clinicians and hospitals, it has a risk of harming a patient, staying longer in the ward after anesthesia, and increasing the period of postoperative recovery. The frequency of postoperative agitation depends on age group. Most often agitation occurs in young children. There is evidence that agitation can also be due to the immature nervous system and a consequence of pathological conditions of the central nervous system (asthenoneurotic syndrome, encephalopathy, hyperactivity syndrome, perinatal posthypoxic and organic brain lesions, history of prematurity, epilepsy, psychophysical and speech delay, etc.). That is why the goal of our research was to study the patterns of clinical manifestations of postoperative agitation syndrome in children with prenatal da­mage to the central nervous system. The work was performed based on the analysis of the postoperative period in 109 young children: 59 patients with acquired hydrocephalus, who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting, and 50 children without neurological disorders in whom reconstructive surge­ries were carried out. Depending on the type anesthetic management, each group was divided into two subgroups: children, who received inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane, and those, who received total intravenous anesthesia using propofol. In the postoperative period, the behavior of children was assessed on a Pediatric Ane­sthesia Emergence Delirium scale 30 minutes after anesthesia was completed. Criterion for the development of agitation was the presence of excitement in a child with a score of ≥ 10 points. Study showed that young children with perinatal damage to the central nervous system and children whose anesthetic provision is carried out using sevoflurane are the most vulnerable to the development of agitation syndrome. Agitation in such children is more pronounced and longer. These cases require prediction, detection and active surveillance.</p> V.I. Snisar O.S. Pavlysh Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 355 360 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239715 Modern approaches and some principles of complementary feeding in the first year of life http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239716 <p>Early life feeding habits may potentially alter future metabolism and health in adulthood. The period of the first complementary feeding is the time when children introduce new food different from breast milk and forms a new diet model for their family. This period is important in the transition of the baby from breastfeeding to adult food and is necessary both to provide nutrients for body growth and mental and social development. The timing of supplementation and model of complementary feeding changed over time. Recent literature data show the growing interest and concern of the scientific community about the impact of terms and methods of supplementation on the onset of some diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, obesity, allergic diseases, celiac disease, diabetes, and others. Nutritional preferences formed in early childhood impact health and eating patterns in adulthood.</p> S.L. Nyankovskyy О.S. Nyankovska M.S. Yatsula O.R. Sadova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 361 367 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239716 The effects of secondhand smoke on respiratory pathology, sensitization and development of allergic diseases in young children (literature review) http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239717 <p>The prevalence of active smoking in Ukraine significantly exceeds the worldwide average, which is certainly a risk factor for children to be exposed to secondhand smoke. The article provides literature data and presents a modern view on the problem of secondhand tobacco smoke impact on the child population. In pediatric practice, the pathological impact of secondhand smoke on the child’s health is significant at the stage of its fetal development. Historical data convincingly prove the connection between the antenatal effect of secondhand smoke and the increased risk of perinatal losses and risks of pregnancy — miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature birth. As early as the 1960s and 1970s, scientific evidence was obtained for an association between the effects of tobacco smoke and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Children are most vulnerable to the negative effects of tobacco smoke at an early age because they have closer and longer contact with their parents, especially their mothers. Many studies have found an association between the effects of secondhand smoke and airway pathology (bronchitis, pneumonia), as well as an increase in the severity of respiratory syncytial viral infection (bronchiolitis). Numerous literature data indicate an association between the effect of passive smoking and the frequency and severity of oral cavity (dental caries) and middle ear (recurrent and chronic otitis, middle ear effusion) pathology. Many studies have shown the effects of secondhand smoke on the development and severity of bronchial asthma in children, but scientific data on the causal relationship of tobacco smoke with other allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies), which are common in young children and preceded bronchial asthma in the "atopic march, are more limited and contradictory. The literature was searched using the PubMed database.</p> N.V. Kotova O.O. Starets D.A. Kovalenko Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 368 374 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239717 The current state of the problem with the diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in pediatric practice http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239718 <p>Among all allergic diseases in pediatric practice, allergic rhinitis is one of the most common pathologies of the upper respiratory tract. This review deals with the problem of modern principles for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in children based on the analysis of literature sources using electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, MedLine, the Cochrane Library. Allergic rhinitis is an important medical and social problem of our time the importance of which has increased significantly in recent years. The growing number of people sensitized to pollen, the variety of symptoms and the negative impact on the quality of life of patients make pollen allergy one of the major problems in pediatrics. Despite the development of international national protocols and clinical guidelines, in many countries the control of allergic rhinitis in children remains insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of patients, pay attention to both nasal and extranasal symptoms, consider all pathognomonic diagnostic aspects, because the underdiagnosis of this allergic disease leads to inadequate therapy, complications, more severe atopy and reduced quality of children’s life in general. Recently, there is growing evidence of the need for personalized selection of the most effective therapy for allergic rhinitis in children. In-depth study of the pathogenetic role of circadian molecular clock in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis using informative molecular genetic methods may allow characterizing in detail the mechanism of regulation of allergic inflammation of the upper airway mucosa and evaluating the role of circadian genes in the development of allergic diseases, in particular allergic rhinitis. In the future, these studies may become an alternative to improve control over the course of allergy and the organization of a comprehensive monitoring system, development of new strategies for the treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis in children.</p> T.O. Kruchko O.Ya. Tkachenko V.V. Sherbak I.O. Kolenko L.M. Bubyr Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 375 383 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239718 Regulation of miRNA content. Part 2. Degradation of miRNAs http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/239719 <p>The scientific review presents the process of regulation of microRNA content — microRNA degradation. To write the article, information was searched using databases Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka. The article presents the characteristics of the most important process of RNA metabolism — degradation of 3'→5' RNA. Degradation of microRNA is inherent in organisms of all kingdoms of life and is involved in the regulation of RNA representation, elimination of dysfunctional or incorrectly constructed RNA molecules and processing of RNA precursors. Exoribonucleases that affect the stability of mature forms of miRNA are presented. It is emphasized that XRN exoribonucleases degrade various RNA substrates during total RNA degradation and are involved in specific processes such as nonsense-mediated degradation, gene silencing, rRNA maturation, and transcription termination. It is shown that exoribonuclease XRN2 plays a crucial role in the termination of transcription during viral infection, namely it has cytoplasmic antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus. The role of RNA-degrading exosome in microRNA degradation is presented. RNA-degrading exosome is a ubiquitous complex and 3'-5'-endo- and exoribonucleases of eukaryotes, which interacts with several processing cofactors and degrades almost all classes of cytoplasmic RNA. The article reflects the function of evolutionarily conserved phosphorolytic 3'-5'-exoribonuclease — polynucleotide phosphorylase. The role of exoribonuclease 1, which is an evolutio­narily conserved 3'-5'-exoribonuclease of the DEDDh family, is involved in the final processing of 5.8S rRNA, replication-dependent histone mRNA, siRNA, and miRNA. Eri1 exoribonuclease has been shown to regulate global microRNA homeostasis in lymphocytes and to participate in NK cell development and antiviral response. Thus, one of the mechanisms of regulation of miRNA content is the most important process of RNA metabolism, which is inherent in organisms of all kingdoms of life, namely the degradation of miRNAs.<br /><br /></p> A.E. Abaturov V.L. Babуch Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 16 5 384 390 10.22141/2224-0551.16.5.2021.239719