Main Article Content
Tetanus is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease, occurrence of which is limited to post-vaccination immunity and develops as a result of Clostridium tetani spores penetration into the wound. This pathogen produces one of the strongest toxins, tetanospasmin, that causes clinical manifestations. The most common symptoms are lockjaw, dysphagia, sardonic smile and tetanic seizures with tonic tension of the muscles. Death usually occurs as a result of respiratory or cardiac failure. Treatment is usually performed in the intensive care departments to avoid development of potential complications that are life-threatening. This article clearly shows the clinical case of tetanus in unvaccinated 6-year-old child with favorable outcome. The disease duration was 64 days. Targeting primary care physicians to provide immunization to risk groups will help to prevent tetanus.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.
Bevz GV. Tetanus: a retrospective study of the clinical course and treatment outcomes of patients in the ICU. Visnyk problem biologii’ i medycyny. 2012;92(2):32-38. (in Ukranian).
Lysenko VI, Golyanishchev MA, Karamushko IV. Tetanus: deceit and rational therapy. Case of successful treatment. Meditsina neotlozhnykh sostoianii. 2013;55(8):35-40. (in Russian).
Shevchenko-Makarenko OP. The case of generalized tetanus fatal. Klinicheskaia infektologiia i parazitologiia. 2015;3:110-114. (in Russian).
Darraj M, Stone J, Keynan Y, Thompson K, Snider C. A case of tetanus secondary to an odontogenic infection. CJEM. 2016;8:1-3. doi: 10.1017/cem.2016.390.
Ergonul O, Egeli D, Kahyaoglu B, Bahar M, Etienne M, Bleck T. An unexpected tetanus case. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;6:746-752. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00075-X.
Woldeamanuel YW, Andemeskel AT, Kyei K, Woldeamanuel MW, Woldeamanuel W. Case fatality of adult tetanus in Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Sci. 2016;368(15):292-299. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.07.025.
Kotani Y, Kubo K, Otsu S, Tsujimoto T. Cephalic tetanus as a differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017:pii: bcr2016216440. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2016-216440.
Chukwubike OA, God’spower AE. A 10-year review of outcome of management of tetanus in adults at a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Ann Afr Med. 2009;3(3):168-172. doi: 10.4103/1596-3519.57239.
Dienye PO, Bock-Oruma AA, Uyagu DD. Tetanus in a post operative patient- a case report. Case Report in Clinical Medicine. 2013;1(2):32-34. doi:10.4236/crcm.2013.21009.
Katamea T, Mukuku O, Kamona L, Mukelenge K, Mbula O, Baledi L. Mortality risk factors in newborns transferred to the neonatal unit of the Hospital Jason Sendwe Lubumbashi, DR Congo. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;19:169. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2014.19.169.4018.
Padmakumar B, Date AR. Tetanus in an unvaccinated child in the United Kingdom: case report. J Public Health. 2005;27(1):118-119. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdh198.
Muteya MM, Kabey AK, Lubanga TM, Tshamba HM, Nkoy AM. Prognosis of tetanus patients in the intensive care unit of Provincial Hospital Jason Sendwe, Lubumbashi, DR Congo. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;14:93. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2013.14.93.2180.
Yeh FL, Dong M, Yao J, Tepp WH, Lin G. SV2 Mediates Entry of Tetanus Neurotoxin into Central Neurons. PLoS Pathog. 2010;11(6):e1001207. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001207.
Dalal S, Samuelson J, Reed J, Yakubu A, Ncube B, Baggaley R. Tetanus disease and deaths in men reveal need for vaccination. J Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94(8):613-621. doi: 10.2471/BLT.15.166777.
Gibson K, Bonaventure UJ, Kiviri W, Parlow J. Tetanus in developing countries: a case series and review. Can J Anaesth. 2009;56(4):307-15. doi: 10.1007/s12630-009-9058-1.
Thwaites CL, Beeching NJ, Newton CR. Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet. 2015;9965(385):362-370. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60236-1.