The Role of NOD-like Receptors in Recognition of Pathogen-associated Molecular Patterns of Infectious Pathogens and in Development of Inflammation

A.Ye. Abaturov, A.P. Volosovets, Ye.I. Yulish

Abstract


The review described the mechanisms of inflammasomes formation.


Keywords


inflammation; infection process; NOD-like receptors; inflammasomes

References


A role for the human NLR family member NLRC5 in antiviral responses / A. Neerincx, K. Lautz, M. Menning, E. Kremmer, P. Zigrino, M. Hosel, H. Buning, R. Schwarzenbacher, T.A. Kufer // J Biol. Chem. — 2010. — Vol. 285, № 34. — P. 26223-26232.

Abdelaziz D.H., Amr K., Amer A.O. Nlrc4/Ipaf/CLAN/CARD12: more than a flagellin sensor // Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. — 2010. — Vol. 42, № 6. — P. 789-791.

Activation of the NALP3 inflammasome is triggered by low intracellular potassium concentration / V. Pétrilli, S. Papin, C. Dostert, A. Mayor, F. Martinon, J. Tschopp // Cell. Death Differ. — 2007. — Vol. 14, № 9. — P. 1583-1589.

Alnemri E.S. Sensing Cytoplasmic Danger Signals by the Inflammasome // J. Clin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 512-519.

An orthogonal proteomic-genomic screen identifies AIM2 as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor for the inflammasome / T. Bürckstümmer, C. Baumann, S. Blüml, E. Dixit, G. Dürnberger, H. Jahn, M. Planyavsky, M. Bilban, J. Colinge, K.L. Bennett, G. Superti-Furga // Nat. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 10, № 3. — P. 266-272.

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of PYNOD and Its Mechanism in Humans and Mice / R. Imamura, Y. Wang, T. Kinoshita, M. Suzuki, T. Noda, J. Sagara, S. Taniguchi, H. Okamoto, T. Suda // J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 184, № 10. — P. 5874-5884.

Arlehamn C.S., Pétrilli V., Gross O., Tschopp J., Evans T.J. The role of potassium in inflammasome activation by bacteria // J. Biol. Chem. — 2010. — Vol. 285, № 14. — P. 10508-10518.

Bacterial RNA and small antiviral compounds activate caspase-1 through cryopyrin/Nalp3 / Kanneganti T.D., Ozoren N., Body-Malapel M. et al. // Nature. — 2006. — Vol. 440, № 7081. — P. 233-236.

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL regulate proinflammatory caspase-1 activation by interaction with NALP1 / J.M. Bruey, N. Bruey-Sedano, F. Luciano, D. Zhai, R. Balpai, C. Xu, C.L Kress., B. Bailly-Maitre, X. Li, A. Osterman, et al. // Cell. — 2007. — Vol. 129, № 1. — P. 45-56.

Benko S., Magalhaes J.G., Philpott D.J., Girardin S.E. NLRC5 Limits the Activation of Inflammatory Pathways // J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 185, № 3. — P. 1681-1691.

Bergsbaken T., Fink S.L., Cookson B.T. Pyroptosis: host cell death and inflammation // Nat. Rev. Microbiol. — 2009. — Vol. 7, № 2. — P. 99-109.

Boyden E.D., Dietrich W.F. Nalp1b controls mouse macrophage susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin // Nat. Genet. — 2006. — Vol. 38, № 2. — P. 240-244.

Brodsky I.E., Monack D. NLR-mediated control of inflammasome assembly in the host response against bacterial pathogens // Semin. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 21, № 4. — P. 199-207.

Cellular pyrin domain-only protein 2 is a candidate regulator of inflammasome activation / A. Dorfleutner, N.B. Bryan, S.J. Talbott, K.N. Funya, S.L. Rellick, J.C. Reed, X. Shi, Y. Rojanasakul, D.C. Flynn, C. Stehlik // Infect Immun. — 2007. — Vol. 75, № 3. — P. 1484-1492.

Chen G., Pedra J.H.F. The Inflammasome in Host Defense // Sensors. — 2010. — Vol. 10. — P. 97-111.

Cholesterol Crystals Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Macrophages: A Novel Link between Cholesterol Metabolism and Inflammation / K. Rajamäki, J. Lappalainen, K. Oörni, E. Välimäki, S. Matikainen, P.T. Kovanen, K.K. Eklund // PLoS One. — 2010. — Vol. 5, № 7. — P. e11765.

Chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome is caused by mutations in CIAS1, a gene highly expressed in polymorphonuclear cells and chondrocytes / J. Feldmann, A.M. Prieur, P. Quartier, P. Berquin, S. Certain, E. Cortis, D. Teillac-Hamel, A. Fischer, G. de Saint Basile // Am. J. Hum. Genet. — 2002. — Vol. 71, № 1. — 198-203.

Church L.D., Cook G.P., McDermott M.F. Primer: inflammasomes and interleukin 1 in inflammatory disorders // Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology. — 2008. — Vol. 4, № 1. — P. 34-42.

Coutinho-Silva R., Corrêa G., Sater A.A., Ojcius D.M. The P2X(7) receptor and intracellular pathogens: a continuing struggle // Purinergic Signal. — 2009. — Vol. 5, № 2. — P. 197-204.

Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP / S. Mariathasan, D.S. Weiss, K. Newton, J. McBride, K. O’Rourke, M. Roose-Girma, W.P. Lee, Y. Weinrauch, D.M. Monack, V.M. Dixit // Nature. — 2006. — Vol. 440, № 7081. — P. 228-232.

Cutting Edge: Cytosolic Bacterial DNA Activates the Inflammasome via Aim2 / S.E. Warren, A. Armstrong, M.K. Hamilton, D.P. Mao, I.A. Leaf, E.A. Miao, A. Aderem // J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 185, № 2. — P. 818-821.

Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1β in salmonella-infected macrophages / L. Franchi, A. Amer, M. Body-Malapel, T.D. Kanneganti, N. Ozören, R. Jagirdar, N. Inohara, P. Vandenabeele, J. Bertin, A. Coyle, E.P. Grant, G. Núñez // Nat. Immunol. — 2006. — Vol. 7, № 6. — P. 576-582.

Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection / A.B. Molofsky, B.G. Byrne, N.N. Whitfield, C.A. Madigan, E.T. Fuse, K. Tateda, M.S. Swanson // J. Exp. Med. — 2006. — Vol. 203, № 4. — P. 1093-1104.

Di Virgilio F. Liaisons dangereuses: P2X(7) and the inflammasome // Trends Pharmacol. Sci. — 2007. — Vol. 28, № 9. — P. 465-472.

Distribution of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein in human tissues / J.K. Maier, S. Balabanian, C.R. Coffill, A. Stewart, L. Pelletier, D.J. Franks, N.H. Gendron, A.E. MacKenzie // J. Histochem. Cytochem. — 2007. — Vol. 55, № 9. — P. 911-923.

Enhanced bacterial clearance and sepsis resistance in caspase-12-deficient mice / M. Saleh, J.C. Mathison, M.K. Wolinski, S.J.Bensinger, P. Fitzgerald, N. Droin, R.J. Ulevitch, D.R. Green, D.W. Nicholson // Nature. — 2006. — Vol. 440, № 7087. — P. 1064-1068.

ESX-1-dependent cytolysis in lysosome secretion and inflammasome activation during mycobacterial infection / I.C. Koo, C. Wang, S. Raghavan, J.H. Morisaki, J.S. Cox, E.J. Brown // Cell. Microbiol. — 2008. — Vol. 10, № 9. — P. 1866-1878.

Ferrari D. The P2X7 receptor: a key player in IL-1 processing and release // J. Immunol. — 2006. — Vol. 176, № 7. — P. 3877-3883.

Fink S.L., Cookson B.T. Apoptosis, Pyroptosis, and Necrosis: Mechanistic Description of Dead and Dying Eukaryotic Cells // Infect. Immunity. — 2005. — Vol. 73, № 4. — P. 1907-1916.

Fink S.L., Cookson B.T. Caspase-1-dependent pore formation during pyroptosis leads to osmotic lysis of infected host macrophages // Cell Microbiol. — 2006. — Vol. 8, № 11. — P. 1812-1825.

Fink S.L., Bergsbaken T., Cookson B.T. Anthrax lethal toxin and Salmonella elicit the common cell death pathway of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis via distinct mechanisms // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. — 2008. — Vol. 105, № 11. — P. 4312-4317.

Fitzgerald K.A. NLR-containing inflammasomes: Central mediators of host defense and inflammation // Eur. J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 40, № 3. — P. 595-598.

Franchi L., Nuñez G. AIM2 joins the gang of microbial sensors // Cell. Host Microbe. — 2010. — Vol. 7, № 5. — P. 340-341.

Guarda G., So A. Regulation of inflammasome activity // Immunology. — 2010. — Vol. 130, № 3. — P. 329-336.

Hentze H., Lin X.Y., Choi M.S.K., Porter A.G. Critical role for cathepsin B in mediating caspase-1-dependent interleukin-18 maturation and caspase-1-independent necrosis triggered by the microbial toxin nigericin // Cell Death and Differentiation. — 2003. — Vol. 10, № 9. — P. 956-968.

Hoffman H.M., Wanderer A.A., Broide D.H. Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome: phenotype and genotype of an autosomal dominant periodic fever // J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. — 2001. — Vol. 108, № 4. — P. 615-620.

Hornung V., Latz E. Critical functions of priming and lysosomal damage for NLRP3 activation // Eur. J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 40, № 3. — P. 620-623.

Hornung V., Latz E. Intracellular DNA recognition // Nat. Rev. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 10, № 2. — P. 123-130.

Ichinohe T., Iwasaki A. Inflammasomes in viral infection // Uirusu. — 2009. — Vol. 59, № 1. — P. 13-21.

Inflammasomes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular and other tissues / Y. Yin, Y. Yan, X. Jiang, J. Mai, N.C. Chen, H. Wang, X.F. Yang // Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. — 2009. — Vol. 22, № 2. — P. 311-322.

Inflammasomes as microbial sensors / L. Franchi, R. Muñoz-Planillo, T. Reimer, T. Eigenbrod, G. Núñez // Eur. J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 40, № 3. — P. 611-615.

Inflammasomes bridge signaling between pathogen identification and the immune response / A.A. Abdul-Sater, N. Saïd-Sadier, D.M. Ojcius, O. Yilmaz, K.A. Kelly // Drugs Today (Barc). — 2009. — Vol. 45, Suppl. B. — P. 105-112.

Innate immune activation through Nalp3 inflammasome sensing of asbestos and silica / C. Dostert, V. Petrilli, R. Van Bruggen, C. Steele, B.T. Mossman, J. Tschopp // Science. — 2008. — Vol. 320, № 5876. — P. 674-677.

Inohara N. Structures and functions of NLRs, intracellular pattern recognition receptors // Seikagaku. — 2010. — Vol. 82, № 1. — P. 12-20.

Jeru I., Amselem S. Inflammasomeetinterleukine 1 // La Revue de medecine interne. — 2010. — doi:10.1016/j.revmed.2010.02.013.

Jin C., Flavell R.A. Molecular Mechanism of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation // J. Clin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 30, № 5. — P. 628-631.

Kepp O., Galluzzi L., Zitvogel L., Kroemer G. Pyroptosis — a cell death modality of its kind? // Eur. J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 40, № 3. — P. 627-630.

Labbé K., Saleh M. Cell death in the host response to infection // Cell Death Differ. — 2008. — Vol. 15, № 9. — P. 1339-1349.

Lamkanfi M., Dixit V.M. The Inflammasomes // PLoS. Pathog. — 2009. — Vol. 5, № 12. — e1000510.

Lamkanfi M., Kanneganti T.-D. Nlrp3: An immune sensor of cellular stress and infection // Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. — 2010. — Vol. 42, № 6. — P. 792-795.

Lamkanfi M., Kanneganti T.D., Franchi L., Núñez G. Caspase-1 inflammasomes in infection and inflammation // J. Leukoc. Biol. — 2007. — Vol. 82, № 2. — P. 220-225.

Latz E. The inflammasomes: mechanisms of activation and function // Curr. Opin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 22, № 1. — P. 28-33.

Leppla S.H., Arora N., Varughese M. Anthrax toxin fusion proteins for intracellular delivery of macromolecules // J. Appl. Microbiol. — 1999. — Vol. 87, № 2. — P. 284.

Listeria monocytogenes is sensed by the NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasome / S. Kim, F. Bauernfeind, A. Ablasser, G. Hartmann, K.A. Fitzgerald, E. Latz, V. Hornung // Eur. J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 40, № 6. — P. 1545-1551.

Mariathasan S., Monack D.M. Inflammasome adaptors and sensors: intracellular regulators of infection and inflammation // Nat. Rev. Immunol. — 2007. — Vol. 7, № 1. — P. 31-40.

Martinon F., Burns K., Tschopp J. The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta // Mol. Cell. — 2002. — Vol. 10, № 2. — P. 417-426.

Martinon F., Hofmann K., Tschopp J. The pyrin domain: a possible member of the death domain-fold family implicated in apoptosis and inflammation // Curr. Biol. — 2001. — Vol. 11, № 4. — P. R118-R120.

Martinon F., Mayor A., Tschopp J. The inflammasomes: guardians of the body // Annu. Rev. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 27. — P. 229-265.

Mathews R.J., Sprakesm M.B., McDermott M.F. NOD-like receptors and inflammation // Arthritis Research Therapy. — 2008. — Vol. 10, № 6. — P. 228-242.

Mechanism of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) inhibition of NLRP1 inflammasome: loop domain-dependent suppression of ATP binding and oligomerization / B. Faustin, Y. Chen, D. Zhai, G. Le Negrate, L. Lartigue, A. Satterthwait, J.C. Reed // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U S A. — 2009. — Vol. 106, № 10. — P. 3935-3940.

Miao E.A., Warren S.E. Innate Immune Detection of Bacterial Virulence Factors Via the NLRC4 Inflammasome // J. Clin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 502-506.

Monack D.M., Navarre W.W., Falkow S. Salmonella-induced macrophage death: the role of caspase-1 in death and inflammation // Microbes Infect. — 2001. — Vol. 3, № 14–15. — P. 1201-1212.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis prevents inflammasome activation / S.S. Master, S.K. Rampini, A.S. Davis, C. Keller, S. Ehlers, B. Springer, G.S. Timmins, P. Sander, V. Deretic // Cell Host Microbe. — 2008. — Vol. 3, № 4. — P. 224-232.

Naik E., Dixit V.M. Modulation of Inflammasome Activity for the Treatment of Auto-inflammatory Disorders // J. Clin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 485-490.

NAIP and Ipaf control Legionella pneumophila replication in human cells / M. Vinzing, J. Eitel, J. Lippmann, A.C. Hocke, J. Zahlten, H. Slevogt, P.D. N'guessan, S. Günther, B. Schmeck, S. Hippenstiel, A. Flieger, N. Suttorp, B. Opitz // J. Immunol. — 2008. — Vol. 180, № 10. — P. 6808-6815.

NALP3 forms an IL-1beta-processing inflammasome with increased activity in Muckle-Wells autoinflammatory disorder / L. Agostini, F. Martinon, K. Burns, M.F. McDermott, P.N. Hawkins, J. Tschopp // Immunity. — 2004. — Vol. 20, № 3. — P. 319-325.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae activates the proteinase cathepsin B to mediate the signaling activities of the NLRP3 and ASC-containing inflammasome / J.A. Duncan, X. Gao, M.T. Huang, B.P. O’Connor, C.E. Thomas, S.B. Willingham, D.T. Bergstralh, G.A. Jarvis, P.F. Sparling, J.P. Ting // J. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 182, № 10. — P. 6460-6469.

NLR family member NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I genes / T.B. Meissner, A. Li, A. Biswas, K.H. Lee, Y.J. Liu, E. Bayir, D. Iliopoulos, P.J. van den Elsen, K.S. Kobayashi // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. — 2010. — Vol. 107, № 31. — P. 13794-13799.

NLRC5 negatively regulates the NF-kappa B and type I interferon signaling pathways / J. Cui, L. Zhu, X. Xia, H.Y. Wang, X. Legras, J. Hong, J. Ji, P. Shen, S. Zheng, Z.J. Chen, R.F. Wang // Cell. — 2010. — Vol. 141, № 3. — P. 483-496.

NLRP3 (NALP3, Cryopyrin) facilitates in vivo caspase-1 activation, necrosis, and HMGB1 release via inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways / S.B. Willingham, I.C. Allen, D.T. Bergstralh, W.J. Brickey, M.T. Huang, D.J. Taxman, J.A. Duncan, J.P. Ting // J. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 183, № 3. — P. 2008-2015.

Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan / S.E. Girardin, Boneca L.A. Carneiro, A. Antignac, M. Jehanno, J. Viala, K. Tedin, M.K. Taha, A. Labigne, U. Zahringer et al. // Science. — 2003. — Vol. 30, № 5625. — P. 1584-1587.

PAN1/NALP2/PYPAF2, an inducible inflammatory mediator that regulates NF-kappaB and caspase-1 activation in macrophages / J.M. Bruey, N. Bruey-Sedano, R. Newman, S. Chandler, C. Stehlik, J.C. Reed // J. Biol. Chem. — 2004. — Vol. 279, № 50. — P. 51897-51907.

Pannexin1 is part of the pore forming unit of the P2X(7) receptor death complex / S. Locovei, E. Scemes, F. Qiu, D.C. Spray, G. Dahl // FEBS Lett. — 2007. — Vol. 581, № 3. — P. 483-488.

Pedra J.H., Cassel S.L., Sutterwala F.S. Sensing pathogens and danger signals by the inflammasome // Curr. Opin. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 21, № 1. — P. 10-16.

Pelegrin P. The P2X7 receptor–pannexin connection to dye uptake and IL-1β release // Purinergic. Signalling. — 2009. — Vol. 5, № 2. — P. 129-137.

Pelegrin P., Surprenant A. Pannexin-1 couples to maitotoxin- and nigericin-induced interleukin-1beta release through a dye uptake-independent pathway // J. Biol. Chem. — 2007. — Vol. 282, № 4. — P. 2386-2394.

Pelegrin P., Surprenant A. Pannexin-1 mediates large pore formation and interleukin-1β release by the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor // EMBO J. — 2006. — Vol. 25, № 21. — P. 5071-5082.

Philpott D.J., Girardin S.E. Nod-like receptors: sentinels at host membranes // Current Opinion in Immunology. — 2010. — Vol. 22, № 4. — P. 1-7.

Reconstituted NALP1 inflammasome reveals two-step mechanism of caspase-1 activation / B. Faustin, L. Lartigue, J.M. Bruey, F. Luciano, E. Sergienko, B. Bailly-Maitre, N. Volkmann, D. Hanein, I. Rouiller, J.C. Reed // Mol. Cell. — 2007. — Vol. 25, № 5. — P. 713-724.

Restriction of Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages requires concerted action of the transcriptional regulators Irf1 and Irf8 and nod-like receptors Naip5 and Nlrc4 / A. Fortier, K. Doiron, M. Saleh, S. Grinstein, P. Gros // Infect. Immun. — 2009. — Vol. 77, № 11. — P. 4794-4805.

Rumble J.M., Duckett C.S. Diverse functions within the IAP family // J. Cell Science. — 2008. — Vol. 121 (Pt. 21). — P. 3505-3507.

Schroder K., Tschopp J. The Inflammasomes // Cell. — 2010. — Vol. 140, № 6. — P. 821-832.

Shaw M.H., Reimer T., Kim Y.G., Nuñez G. NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors // Curr. Opin. Immunol. — 2008. — Vol. 20, № 4. — P. 377-382.

Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization / V. Hornung, F. Bauernfeind, A. Halle, E.O. Samstad, H. Kono, K.L. Rock, K.A. Fitzgerald, E. Latz // Nat. Immunol. — 2008. — Vol. 9, № 8. — P. 847-856.

Sutterwala F.S., Flavell R.A. NLRC4/IPAF: a CARD carrying member of the NLR family // Clin. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 130, № 1. — P. 2-6.

Sutterwala F.S., Ogura Y., Flavell R.A. The inflammasome in pathogen recognition and inflammation // J. Leukoc. Biol. — 2007. — Vol. 82, № 2. — P. 259-264.

Targeted disruption of pyrin, the FMF protein, causes heightened sensitivity to endotoxin and a defect in macrophage apoptosis / J.J. Chae, H.D. Komarow, J. Cheng, G. Wood, N. Raben, P.P. Liu, D.L. Kastner // Mol. Cell. — 2003. — Vol. 11, № 3. — P. 591-604.

The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses / V.A. Rathinam, Z. Jiang, S.N. Waggoner, S. Sharma, L.E. Cole, L. Waggoner, S.K. Vanaja, B.G. Monks, S. Ganesan, E. Latz, V. Hornung, S.N. Vogel, E. Szomolanyi-Tsuda, K.A. Fitzgerald // Nat. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 11, № 5. — P. 395-402.

The Birc1e cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor contributes to the detection and control of Legionella pneumophila infection / D.S. Zamboni, K.S. Kobayashi, T. Kohlsdorf, Y. Ogura, E.M. Long, R.E. Vance, K. Kuida, S. Mariathasan, V.M. Dixit, R.A. Flavell, W.F. Dietrich, C.R. Roy // Nat. Immunol. — 2006. — Vol. 7, № 3. — P. 318-325.

The intracellular sensor NLRP3 mediates key innate and healing responses to influenza A virus via the regulation of caspase-1 / P.G. Thomas, P. Dash, J.R. Aldridge Jr, A.H. Ellebedy, C. Reynolds, A.J. Funk, W.J. Martin, M. Lamkanfi, R.J. Webby, K.L. Boyd et al. // Immunity. — 2009. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 566-575.

The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA / I.C. Allen, M.A. Scull, C.B. Moore, E.K. Holl, E. McElvania-TeKippe, D.J. Taxman, E.H. Guthrie, R.J. Pickles, J.P. Ting // Immunity. — 2009. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 556-565.

The Nod-like receptor (NLR) family: a tale of similarities and differences / M. Proell, S.J. Riedl, J.H. Fritz, A.M. Rojas, R. Schwarzenbacher // PLoS One. — 2008. — Vol. 3, № 4. — P. e2119.

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor NLRC5 is involved in IFN-dependent antiviral immune responses / S. Kuenzel, A. Till, M. Winkler, R. Häsler, S. Lipinski, S. Jung, J. Grötzinger, H. Fickenscher, S. Schreiber, P. Rosenstiel // J. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 184, № 4. — P. 1990-2000.

The pyroptosome: a supramolecular assembly of ASC dimers mediating inflammatory cell death via caspase-1 activation / T. Fernandes-Alnemri, J. Wu, J.-W. Yu, P. Datta, B. Miller, W. Jankowski, S. Rosenberg, J. Zhang, E.S. Alnemri // Cell Death Different. — 2007. — Vol. 14, № 9. — 1590-1604.

Tschopp J., Schroder K. NLRP3 inflammasome activation: The convergence of multiple signalling pathways on ROS production? // Nat. Rev. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 10, № 3. — P. 210-215.

Vilaysane A., Muruve D.A. The innate immune response to DNA // Sem. Immunol. — 2009. — Vol. 21, № 4. — P. 208-214.

Walter K., Hölscher C., Tschopp J., Ehlers S. NALP3 is not necessary for early protection against experimental tuberculosis // Immunobiology. — 2010. — Vol. 215, № 9–10. — P. 804-811.

Weber A., Wasiliew P., Kracht M. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) processing pathway // Sci. Signal. — 2010. — Vol. 3, № 105. — P. cm.2.

Wewers M.D., Sarkar A. P2X7 receptor and macrophage function // Purinergic. Signal. — 2009. — Vol. 5, № 2. — P. 189-195.

Wilkins C., Gale M.Jr. Recognition of viruses by cytoplasmic sensors // Curr. Opin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 22, № 1. — P. 41-47.

Williams A., Flavell R.A., Eisenbarth S.C. The role of NOD-like Receptors in shaping adaptive immunity// Curr. Opin. Immunol. — 2010. — Vol. 22, № 1. — P. 34-40.

Wilmanski J.M., Petnicki-Ocwieja T., Kobayashi K.S. NLR proteins: integral members of innate immunity and mediators of inflammatory diseases // J. Leukoc. Biol. — 2008. — Vol. 83, № 1. — P. 13-30.

Young M.T. P2X receptors: dawn of the post-structure era // Trends Biochem. Sci. — 2010. — Vol. 35, № 2. — P. 83-90.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.4.47.2013.89939

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 CHILD`S HEALTH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2017

 

 Яндекс.МетрикаSeo анализ сайта Рейтинг@Mail.ru