Didactics of Teaching of Histology, Cytology and Embryology: the Role of Computer Technologies
Multimedia technology in the education system — a phenomenon fairly new and not well studied. The analysis of the literature showed that, at present, the main didactic objective of the use of multimedia training systems (MTS) is usually reduced only to visual representation of educational material and organization of training and learning activities of students on reproductive level. From our point of view, taking into account the features of content and studying the subject in using computer technology, as well as the implementation at the lecture and tutorial of active learning can stimulate learning and cognitive activity of students and its transfer to a productive level. The aim of the study was the development of MTS concept to enhance the learning and cognitive activity of students in lectures on histology, cytology and embryology. To achieve the goal following tasks were solved: to analyze the effectiveness of existing tools of support the lecture, to define the complex of didactic, psychological and methodological requirements, taking into account the specifics of the study of human morphology, identification of possible objectives, content and structure of methodical system of lecture demonstrations, to specify elements of knowledge contained in histology requiring creation or improvement of lecture demonstrations; to investigate the possibility of using computer technology to implement the methods of problem-based learning in a lecture course.
It is shown that when building didactics for studying histology using computer technology it is important to achieve the reflection in the existing content of the discipline of professionally oriented material, to ensure the need for knowledges on histophysiology on the clinical departments, which affects the formation of the motivation for the study of histology, to achieve compliance with the content of the discipline «Histology, cytology and embryology» the current level of morphology, to integrate histology into the system of other theoretical disciplines of the medical school. In this context, the requirements to MTS were developed, they allow: to implement the scientific level of the requirements for verification of the histological elements, to stimulate learning and cognitive activity of students, in best way to visualize the course material, to ensure variability of the of educational material presentation that meets the practical needs of teachers and students; to combine rationally different technology of presentation of teaching material: synthesis of the visual (including multimedia) and verbal components; implement the technology of problem-based learning, to provide control of acquisition of knowledge. We formulated the fundamental provisions on which the development of MTS scenario on histology should be based. To those include: visual perception of the material — the most effective, necessary information sufficiency of educational material; gradualness (sequence) supply of educational material, the ability to discuss the material being studied, the variability in complexity of educational material; openness and conformism; structured context.
It must be emphasized that the ability to use computer technology in teaching can be considered to be formed, if they are based on the professional competence of the teacher, knowledge of the main provisions of the cognitive psychology on the cognitive process and the factors affecting its efficiency, and correct use of methods and means of information processing of teaching material. Only in this case we can hope that the use of computer technology in the educational process will be systemic and effective.
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