DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.8.68.2015.75142

Sensitivity to the Main Allergens in Children with Allergic Diseases

O.D. Kuznietsova

Abstract


Introduction. Prevalence of allergic diseases increases with every decade, which is determined by climatic changes, global warming, lengthening of season of pollination, anthropogenic loading on atmospheric air.
Objective of the research — to study hypersensitivity to the main allergens in children with allergic diseases based on the results of skin allergy testing, as well as to analyze the structure of diseases. Materials and methods. We have examined 228 children using skin prick testing, the estimation of results was conducted 25–40 minutes after performing the test. Associations between the results of skin prick test with various allergens were studied using cross-correlation analysis in the package of applied statistics Statistics 6.0. Results. 85.5 % of children were sensitized to the pollen allergens, domestic — 54 %, food — 21 %, fungal allergens — 35 %. Among pollen plants, there prevails sensitization to ambrosia — 47.8 %, sunflower — 49.5 %, cyclachaena — 38.5 %; among domestic allergens — to the tick species D.рteronyssinus and D.farinae — 24 %, cat hair — 19.7 %, among fungal — to Alternaria (23 %). Most often hyperergic reaction (papule diameter ≥ 8 mm) was observed to cyclachaena (44 %), sunflower (46 %), ambrosia (50 %), cat hair (42 %), D.farinae (39 %). We have established significant (р < 0.05) correlations of mainly middle strength between positive prick-tests in pairs: ambrosia — cyclachaena (r = +0.43), ambrosia — sunflower (r = +0.43), acarus D.рteronyssinus — D.farinae (r = +0.66), mixture «birch, alder, oak, hazel» — ryegrass (r = +0.53), beef meat — egg yolk (r = +0.42), pork meat — chicken meat (r = +0.35), milk (r = +0.36), wool of sheep — pork (r = +0.36). Conclusion. Predominance of sensitization to pollen allergens represents the epidemiological situation in the South region of Ukraine. The presence of correlations between the different types of allergens indicates the cross reactions between them. In case of multiple positive results of skin allergen tests, the study using molecular allergy diagnostic method is recommended to establish genuine or cross allergy.


Keywords


children; hypersensitivity; allergens; allergic diseases

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