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Objective: to present a clinical case of endemic infection — visceral form of New World leishmaniasis as a possible cause of fever of unknown origin in a young child. Materials and Methods. This article contains a description of a possible case of visceral New World leishmaniasis in a young child diagnosed ex juvantibus and considering staying in endemic area (Brazil). With the consent of the child’s parents, we have used data from medical documentation (extracts from case histories, test results and instrumental studies) from the clinics of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovsk) and Turkey (Istanbul). Conclusions. All cases of fever of unknown origin, especially in patients with an indication of staying in the sub- and tropical regions, should be promptly examined for Leishmania (blood, sternal punctate) using microscopic, serological and molecular-biological methods. Negative test results should not preclude the diagnosis of endemic infection, if any other cause is not determined.
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