MicroRNA biogenesis. Part 2. Formation of mature miRNAs. Maturation of non-canonical miRNAs
Keywords:microRNA (miRNA; miR), maturation of miRNA, Argonaute proteins, RNA-induced silencing complex, review
The scientific review presents the biogenesis of miRNAs. To write the article, information was searched using databases Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka. The article shows the stages of formation of mature miRNAs. It is noted that duplex RNAs resulting from DICER-mediated cleavage interact with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form an effector RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). It is shown that the deficiency of AGO proteins leads to a significant decrease in the amount of miRs, and overexpression of AGO proteins is accompanied by an increase in the level of miRs. The main stages of assembling a fully functional RISC are presented. The first stage is the loading of duplex miRs on AGO proteins. The second stage is the promotion of duplex miRs. Human diseases associated with processing disorders in the cytoplasm of the cell are presented. Numerous alternative mechanisms involved in the formation of functionally active miRs are is characterized. There are three classes of mirtrons: typical mirtrons, 5’-tailed mirtrons and 3’-tailed mirtrons. Endogenous csRNAs resemble Drosha-independent synthetic csRNAs used to experimentally induce gene knockout. Chimeric hairpins of non-canonical miR genes are transcribed in tandem or as a part of another type of small RNA gene. Thus, the formation of mature miRs occurs due to the formation of the RISC complex. The core of the RISC complex consists of microRNA, AGO and protein with a trinucleotide repeat 6. Loading dsRNA on AGO proteins and subsequent promotion of duplex RNA are the main stages of assembly of a fully functional RISC. Disorders of processing in the cytoplasm of the cell are associated with the development of some human diseases. There are alternative mechanisms involved in the formation of functionally active miRs: mirtrons, endogenous short RNAs containing hairpins, chimeric hairpins.
Caviglia JM, Yan J, Jang MK, et al. MicroRNA-21 and Dicer are dispensable for hepatic stellate cell activation and the development of liver fibrosis. Hepatology. 2018 Jun;67(6):2414-2429. doi:10.1002/hep.29627.
Cullen BR, Cherry S, tenOever BR. Is RNA interference a physiologically relevant innate antiviral immune response in mammals? Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Oct 16;14(4):374-378. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2013.09.011.
Gomez-Escobar N, Almobadel N, Alzahrani O, et al. Translin and Trax differentially regulate telomere-associated transcript homeostasis. Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 7;7(23):33809-33820. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.9278.
Kim JO, Bae J, Kim J, et al. Association of MicroRNA Biogenesis Genes Polymorphisms with Ischemic Stroke Susceptibility and Post-Stroke Mortality. J Stroke. 2018 Jan;20(1):110-121. doi:10.5853/jos.2017.02586.
Tarallo V, Hirano Y, Gelfand BD, et al. DICER1 loss and Alu RNA induce age-related macular degeneration via the NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88. Cell. 2012 May 11;149(4):847-859. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.036.
Tokiyoshi E, Watanabe M, Inoue N, Hidaka Y, Iwatani Y. Polymorphisms and expression of genes encoding Argonautes 1 and 2 in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Autoimmunity. 2018 Feb;51(1):35-42. doi:10.1080/08916934.2017.1416468.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.