The role of dendritic and В-cells in the development of metainflammation of adipose tissue in obesity
Keywords:obesity, adipose tissue, metainflammation, dendritic cells, B-lymphocytes, review
The literature review presents modern data on the spectrum of functional capabilities of the main dendritic cells and B-lymphocytes in the development of metainflammation of adipose tissue in obesity. Dendritic cells functionally link innate and adaptive immunity. The functioning of a subpopulation of professional antigen-presenting lymphocytes — dendritic cells determines the processing, antigen presentation, the canalization of cytodifferentiation of naive T-cells, the activation of B-lymphocytes and specific antibody response. The activation of dendritic cells in adipose tissue is largely due to the interaction of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 of their cytoplasmic membrane with free fatty acids, the excess of which accompanies the process of obesity. Obesity against the background of experimental dendritic cell depletion in adipose tissue is accompanied by a low level of infiltration by proinflammatory macrophages of both adipose and liver tissue in combination with a higher level of insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues. The data on the possibility of primary activation of the adaptive immune system in some special clusters of visceral adipose tissue are presented: the lymphoid cluster associated with adipose tissue and milky spots. Activated B-cells perform the function of antigen presentation and antibody formation in the development of the immune response and play an important regulatory role in fine tuning the functioning of the immune system. Thus, the data of most studies indicate that in the development of obesity, dendritic cells, in general, contribute to the development of metainflammation. Obesity leads to accumulation of B-2 cells in adipose tissue, more active production of B-cell-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of IgG, which recruits macrophages into adipose tissue. However, numerous questions about the regulation of recruiting, activation of dendritic cells and B-cells in the development of obesity remain unclear. In particular, factors are unknown that recruit tolerogenic dendritic and Breg cells, the mechanisms of regulation of their recruitment to different depots of adipose tissue and the possibility of activating these cells, triggers of the synthesis of protective IgM antibodies. Antigens involved in the activation of the adaptive immune system in the development of obesity also remain unknown.
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