Features of immune response in children with varying severity of atopic dermatitis
Keywords:children, atopic dermatitis, immunity
Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic disease among children of young age. Severe forms of AD with skin bacterial and fungal overgrowth may be associated with features of the immune response in different age groups. Plenty of studies demonstrated not only polarization of the Th2 immune response in AD patients, but also the Th1 immune dysregulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of the immune response in children with varying severity of atopic dermatitis. Materials and methods. The study included 85 children aged 3 months to 3 years with a verified diagnosis of AD, living in the Zaporozhzhia region. Twenty healthy children without atopy formed a control group. The patients were divided into groups depending on the severity of AD based on the SCORAD scale. The serum levels C3, C4–2, CD3+, CD19–, CD4+, CD8–, CD4–, CD8+, CD3–, CD56+, CD19+, CD14, CD45, IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE, С3, С4–2, phagocytic activity of neutrophils, and proliferative activity of lymphocytes were measured by flow cytometry (Synevo). ELISA method was used to detect serum levels of IL-13 (ELISA Kit, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Austria). Statistical processing of the results was performed using the official software package Statistica 13.0. Results. The study revealed eosinophilia in 60 % of the children with a mild and moderate course of AD (Me 5.62 [3.64; 7.81]) and in 56 % of the children with a severe course (Me 6.18 [3.13; 9.42]). The children with a severe course of AD and low levels of IL-13, C3 had transient hypogammaglobulinemia and significantly lower levels of the C3 complement, increased levels of CD4+, CD8– with simultaneously decreased levels of CD4–, CD8+ compared with groups of the children with high levels of IL-13 (р < 0.05). Conclusion. The results suggest that severe forms of AD in children of the young age were associated with changes in the complement system and low levels of cytotoxic cells, transient hypogammaglobulinemia. It requires deeper research of the cascades of the immune response in children with AD.
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