DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.15.4.2020.208478

Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as agents dispersing bacterial biofilms

А.Е. Abaturov

Abstract


The development of bacterial biofilms depends on the secretion and preservation of extracellular polysaccharides, or exopolysaccharides, which are the main components of the extracellular polysaccharide substance of the biofilms. Exopolysaccharides of the extracellular polysaccharide substance provide the structural stability of the biofilm, the adhesion and aggregation of microorganisms, the physical and chemical protection of bacteria from the action of antimicrobials and immune system effectors of the macroorganism. Bacterial cells located in the biofilm are protected from antibacterial endo- and exofactors by an extracellular polymeric matrix. To initiate the dispersion of biofilms, microorganisms, along with other enzymes, use specific glycoside hydrolases, which destroy polysaccharides of bacterial biofilms. Glycoside hydrolases realize their action through the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds: amylases cleave α-1,4-; cellulases — ­β-1,4-; β-galactosidases — β-1,3-glycosidic bonds. The main glycoside hydrolases that have antibiotic action are: α-lysozyme, amylases, dispersin B, cellulases, hyaluronidase, α- and β-mannosidases, alginate lyases. These enzymes cause the destruction of polysaccharide polymers, contributing to the release of bacteria. Bacteria that have lost the protection of the polysaccharide scaffold are exposed to antibacterial agents. Considering that the degradation of exopolysaccharides of biofilms by glycoside hydrolases leads to pronounced dispersion of bacteria, this antibiofilm treatment method can be a universal approach to the treatment of infections occurring with the formation of biofilms. Drug methods of dispersing biofilms using polysaccharide-degrading enzymes will no doubt expand the arsenal of antibiofilm therapy for chronic and recurrent bacterial infections, especially those caused by antibio­tic-resistant bacteria.

Keywords


bacterial biofilms; dispersion; polysaccharide-degrading enzymes

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