DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.15.4.2020.208477

On the issue of secondary renal amyloidosis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in children

T.P. Borysova, S.V. Samsonenko, L.P. Badogina

Abstract


The literature review provides up-to-date data on the frequency, developmental mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of secondary renal amyloidosis (AA amyloidosis) in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The incidence of AA amyloidosis in children with JRA is from 0.8 to 2 %, in adults with JRA duration of 28.3 years — 8.9 %. In recent years, on the background of immunobiological therapy, the frequency of AA amyloidosis in adults has decreased to 2 %. To date, the main mechanism for the development of AA amyloidosis has been established, which consists in a constant or periodic increase in the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA). It has been established that the synthesis of SAA is influenced by proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-2, IL-11 and others. To realize the amyloidogenic potential of SAA, it is necessary to influence not only the inflammatory process in the body, but also its duration. The role of genetic factors in the deve­lopment of AA amyloidosis in patients with JRA is discussed. AA amyloidosis most often develops in children with a systemic form, in adults — with systemic and polyarticular forms of JRA. The first symptom of AA amyloidosis is isolated proteinuria, which transforms into nephrotic syndrome. The peculiarity of the nephrotic syndrome is the absence of hypercholesterolemia in most cases, and combination with arterial hypertension, hematuria, and impaired renal function in some patients. The main method confirming the diagnosis of AA amyloidosis is a morphological study of the kidneys biopsy specimens with Congo red. An increase in blood SAA in children with JRA reflects the degree of the inflammatory process and is considered as a risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis. The use of immunobiological preparations (tocilizumab, anakinra) in children with JRA and AA amyloidosis has therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords


juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; children; secondary amyloidosis; review

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