Proteases that degrade the biofilm matrix
Biofilms protect bacteria from the action of antibacterial drugs and are one of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of infections. Destruction of the bacterial biofilm matrix leads to the release of bacteria and they again become vulnerable to antibacterial agents. Various enzymes are involved in the degradation of various components of the excellular matrix of biofilms: proteases, glycosidases, deoxyribonucleases, which are secreted by bacteria and macroorganism cells. Numerous bacterial proteases and proteases of animal origin contribute to the dispersion of biofilms. Proteases are divided into two main groups: exo- and endopeptidases. Exopeptidases are involved in the dispersion of biofilms. Bacterial proteases perform two main functions: firstly, they are involved in providing the microorganism with peptide nutrients and, secondly, they contribute to the development of the infectious process. Bacteria of each family produce several proteases, the activity of which is directed against various targeted molecules. Bacterial proteases such as aureolysin, staphopaines A and B, streptococcal cysteine protease, V8 serine protease, Spl protease, lysostaphin, LasВ protease, LapG protease, serratiopeptidase, proteinase K, subtilisin and subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in the breakdown of the bioprotein matrix contribute to the release of pathogenic bacteria, which leads to an increase in the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy and reduces the risk of an adverse course of severe bacterial infections. It has now been shown that the use of recombinant forms of lysostaphin, serratiopeptidase, proteinase K is accompanied by a decrease in the weight of the biofilm or its complete degradation and contributes to the sanogenesis of infectious diseases. Despite the fact that most of the identified proteases with antibiotic activity are currently in the phase of experimental study, there is no doubt that drugs developed on their basis will become drugs that will be used in the treatment of diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant infections.
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