Dispersion of bacterial biofilm and chronization of respiratory tract infection
Keywords:biofilm dispersion, respiratory tract, recurrent and chronic infectious inflammatory diseases, review
AbstractThe scientific review deals with modern ideas about the process of dispersing the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria. For writing the article, information was searched using Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka databases. Biofilm dispersion is the coordinated release of differentiated, motile, chemotactic bacteria from the matrix and their spread to new colonization loci. The dependence of biofilm dispersion on the influence of bacterial density in the biofilm, quorum-sensing signals, and nutrient supply has been demonstrated. The characteristics of mechanisms, phases and types of biofilm dispersion are given. Three phases of dispersion of the bacterial biofilm were distinguished: 1) separation of cells from the bacterial colony of biofilms; 2) translocation of bacteria to a new location; 3) the adhesion of bacteria to the substrate of a new region. The active and passive mechanisms of biofilm dispersion are described. Three types of dispersion are characterized: erosion, peeling and seeding. The sequence of events leading to the destruction of biofilm is considered. The triggers of dispersion of the bacterial biofilm, which are various exo- and endogenous factors, are described. Attention is focused on the lysis of bacteria, which contributes to the formation of cavities in the biofilm matrix, as an essential component of biofilm dispersion. The role of biofilm dispersion in the development of recurrent and chronic infectious inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract is characterized. Attention is focused on the features of the dispersed pathogen population consisting of both individual bacteria and bacterial aggregates, which allows for better adaptation of bacteria to environmental changes.
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