New threats on the way of overcoming tobacco smoking in adolescents in Ukraine
Keywords:tobacco smoking, survey of adolescents, new types of tobacco products, influence on the health
Background. Tobacco smoking is a manageable risk factor, which negative influence can be minimized with a total cessation of smoking. Reducing the prevalence of smoking by 30 % among people over 15 years of age until 2025 is a strategic purpose of the World Health Organization (WHO). Compliance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco in all countries is one of the main goals of the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda. The purpose was to determine the peculiarities of the prevalence of tobacco smoking in adolescents, to assess the levels of prevalence of new types of tobacco products among them. Materials and methods. In 2017, the third wave of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) took place in Ukraine. Totally, 4,065 7th–9th graders were surveyed (among them 3,040 children aged 13–15 years have been questioning). Survey response rate was 81.6 %. Results. We determined the positive trends in the prevalence of tobacco smoking — compared to the GYTS 2011 data, it decreased by 1.7 times. It is mainly due to the reduction of smoking regular cigarettes, while the level of smoking new types of tobacco products increased. Thus, the proportion of adolescents smoked electronic cigarettes is 2 times higher compared to those smoked regular cigarettes (18.4 and 9.2 %, p < 0.05) regardless of gender. The part of respondents used smokeless tobacco products was 3.1 %. Every third child (both boys and girls) tried to smoke a water-pipe (28.4 %). The first smoking experience was most likely in the age group of 12–13 years. Every tenth adolescent tried to smoke before the age of 10 years that was 2.6 times less compared to the GYTS 2011 data and 3.1 times less compared to GYTS 2005 data. More than 13 % of smokers usually smoke in public open spaces such as shopping and entertainment centers, parks, cafes, clubs, etc. Only 2.8 % of respondents noted that they smoke at their homes (2.8 % (2017) and 12.2 % (2011), p < 0.05). Besides, the percentage of smokers purchased cigarettes in commercial network decreased (p < 0.01). The proportion of children who bought cigarettes in a store and were not refused purchase because of their age also decreased (from 55.7 to 6.7 %, p < 0.001). We consider that high level of children’s awareness about negative tobacco smoking influence on human health is a positive factor for the formation of their health-saving behavior (GYTS 2011 — 72.6 %, GYTS 2017 — 85.6 %, p < 0.001). More than a half of respondents approve the ban of smoking in public open (51.2 %) and closed (70.4 %) spaces. Conclusions. The issue of tobacco smoking in modern adolescents requires the consolidation of efforts by teachers, school psychologists, public health specialists, and narcologists (in some cases) in three main areas: 1) prevention of smoking — it should be aimed at children who do not smoke, with the purpose of increasing their level of consciousness regarding their health, the formation of healthy life style skills and settings; 2) psychological assistance and treatment — it should be aimed at smokers with the purpose of helping them to quit smoking; 3) specialized treatment (narcological help) — it should be aimed at daily smokers with tobacco dependence in order to help them to get rid of this addiction and quit smoking.
Batozhargalova BT. Tobacco smoking among the adolescents: epidemiology, risk factors, clinical, ethnic and gender features, influence on the respiratory health, approaches to rehabilitation. Zemskii Vrach. 2012;(16):28-34. (in Russian).
Bogdanovica I1, Godfrey F, McNeill A, Britton J. Smoking prevalence in the European Union: a comparison of national and transnational prevalence survey methods and results. Tob Control. 2011 Jan;20(1):e4. doi: 10.1136/tc.2010.036103.
World Health Organization (WHO); Ministry of Health of Ukraine; Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS); National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Report Ukraine 2017. Kyiv; 2017. 240 p.
National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes). Available from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic-cigarettes-e-cigarettes. Accessed: June 2018.
Grabowski N. Smoking in different countries. Available from: https://email@example.com/smoking-acc1efcc6478. Accessed: February 4, 2019. (in Russian).
Wackowski OA, Ray AE, Stapleton JL. Smokers’ perceptions of risks and harm from snus relative to cigarettes : a latent profile analysis study. Addict Behav. 2019 Apr;91:171-174. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.11.011.
Copyright (c) 2019 N.S. Polka, O.V. Dobrianska
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.