The results of microbiological monitoring for bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract in children in 2017

G.O. Lezhenko, O.E. Pashkova


The article presents the results of bacteriological monitoring of 483 children aged 3 to 14 years with acute respiratory diseases in Zaporizhzhia and Zaporizhzhia region in 2017. It was found that leading pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (49.4 %) and bacteria of the genus Haemophilus (36.2 %) in the presence of bacterial respiratory infection. The analysis of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed that the microorganisms demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the third-/fourth-generation cephalosporins, vancomycin, linezo­lid and levofloxacin. There was noted a high antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillins (56 % of strains), clindamycin (43 % of strains) and erythromycin (45 % of strains). The isolates of bacteria of the genus Haemophilus most often showed resistance to the ampicillin (58.1 % of strains) and protected penicillins (52 % of strains). On the basis of obtained data, there was substantiated the expediency of ­using cefpodo­xime proxetil, the third-generation cephalosporin, as the star­ting antibacterial drug in the therapy of acute bacterial respiratory infection in children.


acute bacterial respiratory diseases; children; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Haemophilus spp.; cefpodoxime proxetil


Walker D, Fowler T, Watson J, Livermore DM, Walker D. Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer: Infections and the Rise of Antimicrobial Resistance. Lancet. 2013 May 11;381(9878):1606-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60604-2.

World Economic Forum. Global Risks 2013. 8th ed. Available from:

World Economic Forum. Global Risks 2014. Available from:

World Health Organization. Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance 2014. Available from:

Hampton T. Report reveals scope of US antibiotic resistance threat. JAMA. 2013 Oct 23;310(16):1661-3. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.280695.

Cornick JE, Bentley SD. Streptococcus pneumoniae: the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Microbes Infect. 2012 Jul;14(7-8):573-83. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2012.01.012.

Goossens H, Ferech M, Vander Stichele R, Elseviers M; ESAC Project Group. Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study. Lancet. 2005 Feb 12-18;365(9459):579-87. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17907-0.

Molchanova OV. Optimization of the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in the hospital, taking into account the modifying factors. Antibiotikoterapiya tyazheloy vnebolnichnoy pnevmonii. Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009;11(2):183-188. (in Russian).

Zhanbaeva AK, Tilekeeva UM. Comparative analysis of the spectrum of pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia and their sensitivity and resistance to antibacterial drugs in 2 neighboring regions in the Kyrgyz Republic. In: Proceeding of the II international Conference - Science, education, society: trends and development prospects. 2016 Feb 7; Cheboksary. RF, Cheboksary: Interaktiv plius; 2016. 30-33 pp. (in Russian).

The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. EUCAST Disk Diffusion Test Methodology - Version 6.0. January 2017. Available from:

Lezhenko GA, Pashkova OYe, Pantyushenko LI. Rational Antibacterial Therapy of Respiratory Diseases in children. Zdorov`e rebenka. 2013;(51):33-36. (in Russian).

Hackel M, Lascols C, Bouchillon S, Hilton B, Morgenstern D, Purdy J. Serotype prevalence and antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates among global populations. Vaccine. 2013 Oct 1;31(42):4881-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.07.054.

Reinert RR. The antimicrobial resistance profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Apr;15 Suppl 3:7-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02724.x.

Mayanskiy NA, Alyabeva NM, Lazareva AV, Katosova LK. Serotype Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk. 2014;69(7-8):38-45. doi: 10.15690/vramn.v69i7-8.1108. (in Russian).

Reinert RR. Resistance phenotypes and multi-drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae (PROTEKT years 1–3 [1999–2001]. J Chemother. 2004 Dec;16 Suppl 6:35-48. doi: 10.1080/1120009X.2004.11782401.

Zapun C, Contreras-Martel TV, Vernet T.. Penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactam resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008 Mar;32(2):361-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00095.x.

Cherazard R, Epstein M, Doan TL, Salim T, Bharti S, Smith MA. Antimicrobial resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications. Am J Ther. 2017 May;24(3):e361-e369. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000551.

Strachunskiy LS, Kozlov SN. Sovremennaya antibakterialnaya himioterapiya: rukovodstvo dlya vrachey [Modern antibacterial chemotherapy: a guide for doctors]. Moskow: Borges; 2002. 432 p. (in Russian).

Tristram S, Jacobs MR, Appelbaum PC. Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2007;20(2):368-389. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00040-06.

Groot R, DzoliiccDanilovic G, Kligeren B, Goessens W, Neyens H. Antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae: mechanisms, clinical importance and consequencesfor therapy. Eur J Pediatr. 1991 Jun;150(8):534-46.

Zhukova EV. The current state of the problem of antibiotic resistance and epidemiological surveillance of the resistance of microorganisms to antibacterial drugs. Poliklinika. 2015;(2-2):44-47. (in Russian).

Pérez-Trallero E, Martín-Herrero JE, Mazón A, et al. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Spain: latest data and changes over 11 years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Jul;54(7):2953-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01548-09.

Cherkasskіу. BL, editor. Chastnaya epidemiologiya: rukovodstvo dlya vrachey [Private Epidemiology: A Guide for Physicians]. Мoskow: Intersen; 2002. 16 - 24 pp. (in Russian).

Bae S, Lee J, Lee J, Kim E, Lee S, Yu J, Kang Y. Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae respiratory tract isolates in Korea: results of a nationwide acute respiratory infections surveillance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Jan;54(1):65-71. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00966-09.

Jean, SS, Hsueh PR, Lee WS, et al. Nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in intensive care units in Taiwan. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;28(8):1013-7. doi: 10.1007/s10096-009-0727-3.

Zhang H, Li WH, Wang CQ, et al. CHINET 2007 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in China. Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 9(3):207-209. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-93824-8_1460.

Bogdanovich TM, Stetsiuk OU, Krechikova OI, et al. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenza. Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2000;2 (2):93-109.

Volosovets AP, Krivopustov SP, Dzyuba OL. Cefodox (cefpodoxime proxetil): a three-year analysis of clinical use in pediatrics. Sovremennaya pediatriya. 2009;(4):34-38. (in Russian).

Lezhenko GO, Pashkova OE, Pantyushenko LI. Proving of decision of treatment tactics of acute sinusitis in children. 2012;(3):95-98. (in Ukrainian).

Lezhenko GO, Pashkova OE, Pantyushenko LI. Choice of Rational Antibiotic Therapy in Children with Bacterial Respiratory Diseases Under Increased Antibiotic Resistance Level. Zdorov`e rebenka. 2014;(6): 25-30. (in Ukrainian).

Lezhenko GO, Pashkova OE. The Substantiation for Rational Antibacterial Therapy of Bacterial Respiratory Diseases in Children. Zdorov`e rebenka. 2016;(70):33-38. doi: 10.22141/2224-0551.2.70.2016.73805. (in Ukrainian).

Copyright (c) 2020 CHILD`S HEALTH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2020


   Seo анализ сайта