Factors of immunodeficiency in children with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome): a modern paradigm of immune and non-immune mechanisms
Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder. Children with trisomy 21 often suffer from severe, prolonged respiratory infections, which is an immune system defect. Anatomical and functional defects of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems in children with Down syndrome may violate natural barriers and promote the development of infectious disease that should be taken into account when treating these patients. Congenital abnormalities of the immune system associated with trisomy 21 include: mild or moderate T and B cell lymphopenia with a significant decrease in native lymphocytes, mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, specific antibody response to immunization, and neutrophil chemotaxis defect. Today, the role of genes SOD1 and RCAN1 increased expression is proved in the development of primary immunodeficiency, deficiency of zinc and metabolic factors, which contribute to the immune disorders, increasing the risk of infection, and require further researches in Down syndrome.
Down syndrome; trisomy 21; immunodeficiency; children
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