DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.12.7.2017.116190

Chronic kidney disease in children (literature review)

I.A. Karimdzhanov, N.A. Israilova

Abstract


The article presents modern concepts of chronic kidney disease in children as a condition that develops due to the irreversible decrease in renal homeostatic functions in any severe progressive kidney disease, data on epidemiological prevalence, etiological factors, diagnostic methods, stages and clinical course of chronic kidney disease in children. Moreover, it was indicated that early detection and timely treatment of chronic kidney disease in children is an important background for preventing or postponing its adverse outcome. In addition, a high degree of disability and a significant decrease in the quality of life of patients, the complexity and high cost of therapy for patients with terminal chronic renal failure were shown, ma­king it very important to prevent its development in patients with nephropathies. We outlined the main principles of pathogenetic therapy based on the analysis of domestic and foreign guidelines for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in children. The schemes of treatment for protein-energy insufficiency, arterial hypertension, anemia, correction of mi­neral metabolism disorders are given. We discussed the question of reducing the level of azotemia with various drugs, and the development of new drugs to initiate early treatment and to prevent the development of severe forms of chronic kidney disease in children. The search for necessary literature sources was performed in Scopus, MedLine, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka, RINC databases.


Keywords


children; chronic kidney disease; review

References


Schaefer B, Wühl E. Educational paper: progression in chronic kidney disease and prevention strategies. Eur J Pediatr. 2012 Nov;171(11):1579-88. doi: 10.1007/s00431-012-1814-5.

Schieppati A, Remuzzi G. Chronic renal diseases as a public health problem: epidemiology, social, and economic implications. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005 Sep;(98):S7-S10. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.09801.x. 

Andrew S, Levey AS, Coresh J, Kline B, et Work Group. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification. Avalible from: http://www2.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/guidelines_ckd/toc.htm. Accessed: 2002.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):1-150.

Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV, et al. National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun;111(6 Pt 1):1416-21. PMID: 12777562.

Harambat J, Karlijn J, Stralen V, Kim JJ, Tizard EJ. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Mar;27(3):363-73. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-1939-1.

Vivante A, Hildebrandt F. Exploring the genetic basis of early-onset chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2016 Mar;12(3):133-46. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2015.205.

Smith JM, Stablein DM, Munoz R, Hebert D, McDonald RA. Contributions of the Transplant Registry: The 2006 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS). Pediatr Transplant. 2007 Jun;11(4):366-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00704.x.

Daminova MA. Chronic kidney disease in children: etiology, classification and factors progression. Vestnik Sovremennoi Klinicheskoi Mediciny. 2016;9(2):36-41. doi: 10.20969/VSKM.2016.9(2).36-41. (in Russian).

Van Stralen K, Verrina E, Schaefer F, Jager K. ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry annual report 2008. Available from: https://www.espn-reg.org./index.jsp?p=pua. Accessed: August 2010.

Cannata-Andia J, Zoccali C, Wanner C, at ERA-EDTA Work Group . ERA-EDTA Registry 2004 Annual Report. Amsterdam: Academic Medical Center; 2006. 117 p.

McDonald S, Excell L, editors. Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. ANZDATA Registry Report 2005. Adelaide, South Australia, 2005. Available from: http://www.anzdata.org.au/v1/annual_reports_download. Accessed: February, 2016.

Hattori S, Yosioka K, Honda M, Ito H, Japanese Society for Pediatric Nephrology. The 1998 report of the Japanese National Registry data on pediatric end-stage renal disease patients. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002 Jun;17(6):456-61. doi: 10.1007/s00467-002-0848-8.

Warady BA, Chadha V. Chronic kidney disease in children: the global perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Dec;22(12):1999-2009. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0410-1.

Harambat J, Bonthuis M, van Stralen KJ, et al. Adult height in patients with advanced CKD requiring renal replacement therapy during childhood. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Jan;9(1):92-9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00890113.

Saran R, Li Y, Robinson B, et al. US Renal Data System 2014 annual data report: epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Jul;66(1 Suppl 1):Svii,S1-305. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.05.001.

Lagomarsimo E, Valenzuela A, Cavagnaro F, Solar E. Chronic renal failure in pediatrics 1996. Chilean survey. Pediatr Nephrol. 1999 May;13(4):288-91. doi: 10.1007/s004670050610.

United States Renal Data System, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. USRDS 2005 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. USA, MD: Bethesda; 2005. 282 p.

Papayan AV, Savenkova ND, editors. Klinicheskaja nefrologija detskogo vozrasta: rukovodstvo dlja vrachej [Pediatric Nephrology: Guidelines for Physicians]. Saint-Petersburg: Levsha; 2008. 600 p. (in Russian).

Mak RH. Chronic kidney disease in children state of the art. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1687-88. doi:10.1007/s00467-006-0360-7.

Smirnov AV, Shilov EM, Dobronravov VA, et al. National guidelines. Chronic kidney disease: the basic principles of screening, diagnosis, prevention and treatment approaches. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg). 2012;16(1):89-115. (in Russian).

Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008 Jan;23(1):27-39. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0359-0.

Loimann E, Tsygin AN, Sargsyan AA, editors. Detskaja nefrologija: rukovodstvo dlja vrachej [Pediatric Nephrology: Guidelines for Physicians]. Moscow: Litterra; 2010. 400 p. (in Russian).

Keithi-Reddy SR, Singh AK. Hemoglobin target in chronic kidney disease: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009 Mar;24(3):431-4. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-0902-2.

Fine R.N. Etiology and treatment of growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a historical perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Apr;25(4):725-32. doi: 10.1007/s00467-009-1409-1.

Warady BA, Chadha V. Chronic kidney disease in children: the global perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Dec;22(12):1999-2009. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0410-1.

Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Apr;23(4):578-85. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011111115.

Flynn JT, Mitsnefes M, Pierce C et al. Blood pressure in children with chronic kidney disease: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. Hypertension. 2008 Oct;52(4):631-7. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.110635.

ESCAPE Trial Group, Wühl E, Trivelli A, Picca S, et al. Strict blood-pressure control and progression of renal failure in children. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 22;361(17):1639-50. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0902066.

Abdullina GA, Safina MA, Daminova MA. Clinical physiology of the kidneys in premature: the role of follow-up. Vestnik Sovremennoi Klinicheskoi Mediciny. 2014;7(6):9-13. (in Russian).

McDonald SP, Craig JC, Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Nephrology Association. Long-term survival of children with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 24;350(26):2654-62. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa031643.

Schwartz GJ, Muñoz A, Schneider MS, et al. New Equations to Estimate GFR in Children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Mar;20(3):629-37. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2008030287.

Ignatova MS. CAKUT-syndrome in children. Pediatria. Journal named after G.N.Speransky. 2012;91(6):141-4. (in Russian).

Rees L, Mak RH. Nutrition and growth in children with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011 Sep 27;7(11):615-23. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2011.137.

Mak RH, Cheung W, Cone RD, Marks DL. Orexigenic and anorexigenic mechanisms in the control of nutrition in chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Mar;20(3):427-31. doi: 10.1007/s00467-004-1789-1.

Gat-Yablonski G, Phillip M. Nutritionally induced catch-up growth. Nutrients. 2015 Jan;7(1):517-51. doi: 10.3390/nu7010517.

Atkinson MA, Furth SL. Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011 Sep 6;7(11):635-41. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2011.115.

Farquharson C, Ahmed SF. Inflammation and linear bone growth: the inhibitory role of SOCS2 on GH/IGF-1 signalling. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013 Apr;28(4):547-56. doi: 10.1007/s00467-012-2271-0.

Sanchez CP, Salusky IB, Kuizon BD, Abdella P, Jüppner H, Goodman WG. Growth of long bones in renal failure: roles of hyperparathyroidism, growth hormone and calcitriol. Kidney Int. 1998 Dec;54(6):1879-87. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00199.x.

Rees L. Growth hormone therapy in children with CKD after more than two decades of practice. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Sep;31(9):1421-35. doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3179-2.

Hsu TW, Liu JS, Hung SC, et al. Renoprotective effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients with predialysis advanced chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and anemia. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):347-54. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12700.

KDOQI Work Group. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in Children with CKD: 2008 update. Executive summary. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Mar;53(3 Suppl 2):S11-104. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.11.017.

Kushnirenko SV, Ivanov DD. The experience of the Use of Essential Amino Acids and Their Keto-analogs in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. Pochki. 2013;1(3):35-8. (in Russian).

Kraut JA, Madias NE. Consequences and therapy of the metabolic acidosis of chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011 Jan;26(1):19-28. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1564-4.

De Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M, editor. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. Geneva: WHO Press; 2008. 40 p.

Mistnefes MM, Kimball TR Kartal J, et al. Progression of left ventricular hypertrophy in children with early chronic kidney diseases: 2-year follow-up study. J Pediatr. 2006 Nov;149(5):671-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.08.017.

Tamura MK, Vittinghoff E, Yang J, et al. Anemia and risk for cognitive decline in chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:13. doi: 10.1186/s12882-016-0226-6.

Dahlinghaus EK, Neu AM, Atkinson MA, Fadrowski JJ. Hemoglobin level and risk of hospitalization and mortality in children on peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Dec;29(12):2387-94. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-2872-x.

Gerson A, Hwang W, Fiorenza J, et al. Anemia and health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004 Dec;44(6):1017-23. PMID: 15558522.

Warady BA, Silverstein DM. Management of anemia with erythropoietic-stimulating agents in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Sep;29(9):1493-505. doi: 10.1007/s00467-013-2557-x.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group. KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline 2012 for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012 Aug; 2(4):279-331.

KDOQI; National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 May;47(5 Suppl 3):S11-145. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.03.010.

Lysova EV, Savenkova ND. Features of syndrome anemia in children with chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg). 2014;18(3):34-44. (in Russian).

Boehm M, Riesenhuber A, Winkelmayer WC, Arbeiter K, Mueller T, Aufricht C. Early erythropoietin therapy is associated with improved growth in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Aug;22(8):1189-93. doi: 10.1007/s00467-007-0472-8.

Morgan HE, Holt RC, Jones CA, Judd BA. Intravenous iron treatment in paediatric chronic kidney disease patients not on erythropoietin. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1963-5. doi: 10.1007/s00467-007-0499-x.

Atkinson MA, Martz K, Warady BA, Neu AM. Risk for anemia in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients: a report of NAPRTCS. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Sep;25(9):1699-706. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1538-6.

Smirnov AV, Volkov MM. The role of vitamin D in progression of chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg). 2008;12(4):20-7. (in Russian).

Wesseling K, Bakkaloglu S, Salisky I. Chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008 Feb;23(2):195-207. doi: 10.1007/s00467-007-0671-3.

Abaturov AE, Borisova TP, Krivusha YeL. Treatment and prevention of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children and adolescents. Zdorov'ye Rebenka. 2015;3(63):73-8. (in Russian).

Wesseling-Perry K, Salusky IB. Chronic kidney disease: mineral and bone disorder in children. Semin Nephrol. 2013 Mar;33(2):169-79. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2012.12.017.

Rees L, Shroff R. The demise of calcium-based phosphate binders-is this appropriate for children? Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(12):2061-71. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-3017-y.

Klaus G, Watson A, Edefonti A, et al. Prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure: European guidelines. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 Feb;21(2):151-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-005-2082-7.

Block GA, Spiegel DM, Ehrlich J, et al. Effects of sevelamer and calcium on coronary artery calcification in patients new to hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 2005 Oct;68(4):1815-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00600.x.




Copyright (c) 2017 Zdorov'ye Rebenka - Child`s Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2018

 

   Seo анализ сайта