Pompe disease clinical and laboratory diagnostic features
Background. Analysis of Pompe disease (PD) clinical features in children in order to determine its main clinical and laboratory characteristics based on the results of laboratory and instrumental studies that allow to select such patients into the screening group for enzymatic diagnosis in dried blood spots was the objective of this study. Materials and methods. In a period from 2002 to 2016, 522 children with PD suspicion were examined in the Center of Orphan Diseases of National Children’s Specialized Hospital “Ohmatdyt”. There were 282 boys and 240 girls aged from 4 months to 13 years. Results. According to electroneuromyography results and mutations in SMN gene revealing, spinal muscular atrophy was diagnosed in 98 (19 %) patients, Duchenne primary muscular dystrophy — in 70 (13 %). 71 (13.6 %) patients had different forms of hereditary neuropathy. In 38 (7.2 %) cases, the dominant type of disease inheritance was revealed, later we did not provide laboratory tests in those patients in order to confirm the PD diagnosis. Thus, 245 (47 %) patients were included into the selective (screening) group for enzymatic diagnosis using dried blood spot. In these patients, a heterogeneous clinical picture of the disease was noted: muscle weakness due to myopathic syndrome in combination with cardiomyopathy, delay in physical development, hyperCKemia. Twenty five patients aged 2 to 8 months besides myopathic syndrome had elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase (more than 220 U/l), lactate dehydrogenase (more than 250 U/l), left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; also in 10 patients, hepatomegaly and cardiopulmonary failure were revealed. Based on enzymatic tests, PD diagnosis (infantile form) was established in 5 patients (in 3 cases — classical form, in 2 cases — atypical). The clinical picture was heterogeneous, however, in all cases, slow increase in body weight, delay of static and kinetic skills forming were noted. Three patients receive enzyme replacement therapy. This allowed to prevent early death, and in one case, it was almost possible to restore independent walking. Conclusions. PD in children is characterized by different system failure and various clinical forms, in specific treatment absence, PD leads to patients’ early death. The PD main manifestations in children are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathic syndrome in combination with a specific biochemical phenotype. Enzymatic diagnosis in dried blood spots in the group of selective screening will increase the effectiveness of PD early diagnosis and treatment in children.
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