Modern aspects of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of obesity in children

S.D. Saltanova

Abstract


Obesity is a topical medical and social problem. Prevalence of obesity is increasing among children. The number of children under 5 years of age with overweight and obesity in the world is 44 millions. Obesity in childhood is a risk factor for the development of severe concomitant pathologies. Childhood obesity is an important prognostic factor for obesity in adults. Measures to prevent and treat childhood obesity should be directed not only to the child, but also to the whole family. To prevent obesity, excessive calorie intake should be limited. To increase the effectiveness of preventing obesity among children, we should combine reduction of energy intake with an increased physical activity. Lifestyle modification (correction of nutrition, exercise and behavioral therapy) is the main method of treating children’s obesity. Introduction of school programs that increase physical activity and optimize the nutrition improve the effectiveness of treatment for childhood obesity. In case of ineffectiveness of lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy may be prescribed. Orlistat is a medication for the treatment of obesity in children. The effectiveness of pharmacotherapy is enhanced when it is combined with integrated programs of lifestyle modification. Bariatric surgery should be used in cases of morbid obesity or failure of non-surgical treatment. Surgical treatment leads to body mass index decrease, improvement of concomitant diseases and quality of life. Bariatric surgery also has a risk of side effects, which requires continuous monitoring of complications. For the treatment and prevention of obesity, children need a multidisciplinary approach involving different specialists.

Keywords


obesity; children; diagnosis; treatment; prevention; review

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0551.12.6.2017.112841

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